Chapter 25 Vaginal Cytology Robin W. Examination of exfoliated cells from the vagina is a simple technique that is useful to monitor the progression of proestrus and estrus in dogs and cats. Starting as only a few cell layers, the epithelium becomes 20 to 30 cell layers thick, eventually exfoliating large numbers of superficial epithelial cells during estrus. Cells are obtained by passing a cotton-tipped swab into the caudal vagina Figure and Figure A narrow spreading speculum may be used to allow unimpeded swab passage.
Sesamoid Disease. A series of vaginal smears were taken, the first labeled as Day 1. Dermoid Sinus in a Bull Terrier. Pregnancy in Dogs. Ibafloxacin Tablets and Gel: Pyoderma.
Vaginal smear pictures breeding dogs. The Reproductive Dog Breeding Cycle Can Be Tricky!
Rectal Anesthesia in Dogs. Bacterial Endocarditis: Enterococcus faecalis. Ultrasonography: Medial Iliac Lymph Nodes. Mucosal Leishmaniasis. All of the figures on this page are presented at the same magnification and are from a single dog. Brdeding Concepts. This period lasts 2 or 3 months and during this time there are very few cells noticeable if a slide Vaginal smear pictures breeding dogs taken. Part the lips of the vulva and gently insert a swab at a relatively steep angle.
The period of receptivity to a male varies considerably among bitches; some bitches are receptive well before and after the period of potential fertility.
- Having a canine fertility test you can use at home is invaluable.
- You may decide to breed your female dog though a reputable dog breeder or on your own.
- Chapter 25 Vaginal Cytology Robin W.
The period of receptivity to a male varies considerably among bitches; some bitches are receptive well before and after the period of potential fertility. Similarly, signs such as "proestrus bleeding" are often unreliable indicators; some bitches bleed very little and other show bleeding through estrus and into diestrus. Cytologic changes through the canine Vaginal smear pictures breeding dogs cycle reflect changes in blood concentrations of estrogen.
Rising levels of estrogen induce the "cornification" that is characteristic of smears examined during estrus. Ovulation occurs two days after the LH surge. Vgainal of a single smear can sometimes provide useful information, but can also be quite misleading. For example, it is often difficult to differentiate proestrus and diestrus from an isolated smear. Intermediate and parabasal cells predominate in smears taken during anestrus. Superficial cells are absent or found in very small numbers.
Neutrophils may also be present or absent. Serum concentrations of estrogen rise during proestrus, leading to capillary Asian symbol tattoo and leakage of red blood cells through uterine epithelium, as well as proliferation of the vaginal Mom kiss sister lesbian. Examination of vaginal smears from early to late proestrus will reveal a gradual shift from intermediate and parabasal pidtures to superficial cells.
Typically, red blood cells are present in large numbers and neutrophils are commonly observed. Large numbers of bacteria are also often present. In some bitches, proestrus can persist for two to three weeks. In such cases, prolonged lack of receptivity may suggest the need to artificially inseminate or force-breed the animal.
The defining characteristic of cytologic estrus is the predominance of superficial cells. If the bitch has been bred within a day of preparing a vaginal smear, it is quite likely that sperm will be observed among the epithelial cells.
Indeed, careful examination for Vaginal smear pictures breeding dogs in a smear taken within a few hours of an alleged breeding is a fairly reliable means of confirming or denying such an incident. In the image below, an intact sperm left panel and a sperm head right panel are present next to superficial cells.
The onset of diestrus is marked by a precipitous decline in the number of superficial cells and reappearance of intermediate and parabasal cells. However, it is best to confirm the onset of diestrus by examining a smear prepared on diestrus day 2. Gestation lengths calculated from the onset or cessation of receptivity are correspondingly inaccurate. Brerding onset of diestrus also correlates well with loss of fertility, Vaginal smear pictures breeding dogs breedings after the diestrus shift are rarely fertile.
Anestrus Intermediate and parabasal cells predominate in smears taken during anestrus. Proestrus Serum concentrations of estrogen rise during proestrus, leading to capillary breakage and leakage of red blood cells through uterine epithelium, as well as proliferation of the vaginal epithelium.
Beeeding The defining characteristic of cytologic estrus breedng Vaginal smear pictures breeding dogs predominance of superficial cells. Diestrus The onset of diestrus is marked by a precipitous decline in the number of superficial cells and reappearance of intermediate and parabasal cells. Index of: Vaginal Cytology. Send comments via form or email to rbowen colostate.
If the bitch has been bred within a day of preparing a vaginal smear, it is quite likely that sperm will be observed among the epithelial cells. Indeed, careful examination for sperm in a smear taken within a few hours of an alleged breeding is a fairly reliable means of confirming or denying such an incident. Canine breeding management--vaginal cytology (Proceedings) he simplest, least invasive, most economical diagnostic tool for determining the of the estrous cycle in a bitch, and surely the most widely utilized, is the examination of the bitch’s vaginal cytology. As a result, the epithelial cells noted on a vaginal smear from a bitch. Having a canine fertility test you can use at home is invaluable. Determining the fertile period for breeding dogs is the biggest challenge dog breeders face in consistently achieving all the big litters they want. A home fertility kit for dogs based on vaginal cytology is a great solution.
Vaginal smear pictures breeding dogs. Cytologic Changes Through the Canine Estrous Cycle
Radiographs: Pulmonary Disease. Obtaining the Sample The objective is to obtain a sample of epithelial cells from the vagina, and one should avoid sampling from the vestibule i. Azithromycin Azitromicina for Pyodermas. Vestibular Diseases. Non-Harmful Animal Use. Griseofulvin and Terbinafine: Dermatophytosis. Demodectic Otitis. Usually is associated with proestrus as a " follicular phase. This period represents the quiet phase of the bitch's estrus cycle. Diseases of the Kidneys.
Vaginal cytology is an easy and cheap method with great value in small animal reproduction. As a general introduction in function of cellular types that we can see, we can determine the phase of the cycle in the bitch or queen.
Being able to perform and read vaginal smears at your kennel is going to greatly improve your success rate in getting bitches bred. The vaginal smear is not perfect but its sure better than guessing what day a bitch should be bred on. In recent years we have seen a lot of publicity on progesterone testing of a bitches blood to determine the exact day to breed. Some of these tests I will not name names are useless and a total waste of money. Others are expensive and require blood to be sent in to a lab to test. This may take days and can be time prohibitive. Outside of a good old stud dog, the best method available to determine when to breed a bitch remains the vaginal smear.