# Ice flow model. Explaining the science of Antarctic glaciers

Link to this page. IceFlow was originally written in Matlab by William Colgan. Community Join. Models Model Repository. Contribute a Model.

Due Ice flow model the kink in the velocity profile assumed by Dansgaard and Johnsen, their model is sometimes referred to as the kink model. This means that ice-sheet models prior to Ice flow model not replicate some of the complex, non-linear changes in ice-sheet flow that might affect rates and magnitudes of sea level rise, such as ice shelf collapse or marine ice sheet instability. Share this. It is therefore difficult to implement in regions where vertical variations in speed are important, such as across grounding lines or complex Anerexic model s flow near the ice divide For these areas we have detailed knowledge about the snow accumulation rate, the bedrock and surface topography, and the horizontal surface velocity from measurements performed on the ice sheet and on the ice core.

## Ice flow model. Navigation menu

Nested Ice flow model models. Journal of Glaciology 24, Some flowline models may be depth-dependent, Mississippi latino media the processes of ice flow may vary with temperature in the ice column. NatureU, The SSA is a vertically integrated 2D model, with a depth-averaged ice velocity. It is Ice flow model efficient and works well in non-ice streaming regions of an ice sheet, and works well for valley glaciers.

Ice is a quasi-viscous material, and it deforms under applied stress.

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Why use ice-sheet models? What is a model? How reliable are ice-sheet models? Model inputs and outputs Prognostic and diagnostic models Flowline and spatially distributed models Modelling ice flow The role of grid size Summary References Comments. A glacier or ice-sheet model is a building block, used for experiments to make quantitative predictions James rousseau model the future of glaciers and ice sheets.

They are important, because they can help scientists to constrain future contributions to sea level rise and ocean and atmospheric circulation. They can be stand-alone units, or can be coupled to earth-system, ocean and climate models for a comprehensive assessment of past and future changes.

This means that ice-sheet models prior to could not replicate some of the complex, non-linear changes in ice-sheet flow that might affect rates and magnitudes of sea level rise, such as ice shelf collapse or marine ice sheet instability. Modelling changes in sea-ice extent has proven especially difficult. Sinceextensive work has been conducted improving the physical basis of these models. Calving processes have been a particular area of focus. Alongside these computationally expensive models is a series of smaller, lighter, simpler models that can be applied to specific problems and research questions.

They are capable of carrying out many simulations rapidly, allowing a fuller exploration of parameter space and the effect of different variables. A model is a simplification of reality. Allen krista nude photo is never a completely true representation of the real system, which is far too complex to replicate in its entirety.

It is for this reason that George Box wrote. However, they can provide insights into likely scenarios, and if they can replicate past change well, can be used to provide estimates of future change. Numerical ice-sheet models represent physical real-world processes by a series of equations.

These equations are then solved to understand how the system will respond under different scenarios. This is usually calculated through degree day or energy balance models 2. Secondly, they must compute the flow of ice downslope under its own weight. Equilibrium line altitudes in a hypothetical glacier. Glacier flow is a continuous process, but this is very difficult to simulate mathematically. Instead, modellers use numerical methods, which solve equations in a series of steps.

Models are split up into grid cells ; the numerical methods calculate the change in ice thickness through time using a series of partial differential equations for one grid cell at a time, and use the solution as an input for the next cell. This is then iteratively repeated at each time step. For example, in the figure below, the change Ice flow model ice thickness since the last time step is calculated for each cell, one at a time.

Grid cells 50 m resolution in a flowline model cross-sectional view. Equations are solved step-wise, one grid cell at a time. The solution for the first grid cell is used as input for the second. Can a numerical model be used to make a useful prediction? Perhaps, if the model physics are a suitable approximation of the real system, and the appropriate values for the input variables have been used. Models are Ice flow model usually verified the model physics tested against good models or good analytical solutions e.

Numerical glacier and ice-sheet models need input data. This includes model constants such as ice and sea water density, the thermal conductivity of ice, acceleration due to gravityand environmental variables such as temperature, precipitation, geothermal heat flux, temperature and precipitation lapse rates, temperature ranges. Other input data may include sea level, initial ice surface elevation and bed topography. Some model parameters may be unknown, and must therefore be tuned. This means that the model parameters are systematically varied until the model outputs ice geometry, velocity, length, volume and so on match observations.

Example of some model constants and environmental variables. Ice flow model the model has been parameterised, it may be dynamically calibrated. This means that a series of short yearstime-dependent runs are carried out, forced by observed temperature and precipitation.

The transient response of the model is recorded, and parameters are fine-tuned until model outputs match the record of glacier length or volume, including the rate of change over the time period. There are many different kinds of model, which can use a variety of different physical solutions. Diagnostic models focus on a specific process. They may isolate a part of a glacier or ice sheet for example, the grounding line or calving front and explore the workings of that particular system.

They consider the physics of a specific process in a schematic manner. Prognostic models are used for understanding the past, Owlsen twin for predicting the future. They are time-marching, simulating evolution through time. Steady-state prognostic models have stable input parameters and are used to find a specific solution such as, the geometry of an ice field at the LGM 7.

Transient simulations have time-dependent input variables; parameters like temperature and precipitation may change through time. For example, proxy records of air or ocean temperature may be used to drive the model. The scientist is interested in the transient response of the ice mass to these changes e. The next major distinction in numerical models is whether they are spatially distributed also known as plan view or flowline models 9.

Flowline models simulate ice flow along a single line, normally the centreline of the glacier. Spatially distributed models Southeast asian civilizations the whole domain. Plan view and spatially distributed numerical glacier and ice-sheet models.

Flowline models simulate ice-flow along a single, one-cell wide centreline. They usually include a width-dependent shape factor that accounts for the valley width, and which accounts for conservation of mass as the valley widens and narrows.

For example, compressional flow will occur as the valley narrows, resulting in accelerating ice velocities. Some flowline models may be depth-dependent, and the processes of ice flow may vary with temperature in the ice column. Flowline model domain. After Oerlemans, Flowline models have been used very successfully with valley glaciers 6,10 and ice streams within ice sheetswhere ice-flow is topographically constrained.

Spatially distributed also known as plan view models use the whole domain, and may be preferable when the influence of regional topography may be important for example, in controlling ice accumulation Numerical models can use a variety of different solutions, of differing complexities, to simulate ice flow.

They have different approximations of the nine principle stress components. Driving and resisting stresses operating on a block of ice on an inclined slope. Determining the full stress field and its evolution through time involves using the Full Stokes equations differential equations that form the cornerstone of fluid dynamics. There is therefore a hierarchy of model complexities, depends on which approximation of the full stokes equations are used.

The Shallow Ice Approximation SIA neglects longitudinal along flow stretching and compression and transverse stresses lateral drag against slower ice for an ice stream or valley walls for a valley glacier 15and vertical stress gradients.

It is computationally Ice flow model and works well in non-ice streaming regions of an ice sheet, and works well for valley glaciers. However, basal sliding is difficult to implement properly, and so the accuracy of the SIA decreases as the contribution of basal slip to ice velocity increases.

It is therefore not very good at simulating ice streams and other key regions of an ice sheet, such as ice divides, grounding lines and floating ice shelves with zero basal drag It assumes that basal shear stress of the grounded ice is completely balanced by the gravitational driving stress.

It also assumes a small aspect ratio of vertical to horizontal length 4 which is appropriate for an ice sheet and a large ratio of vertical to horizontal stresses. It also assumes that the longitudinal derivatives of stress, velocity and temperature are small.

The SIA is therefore very efficient at modelling ice sheets over long simulations. It is well understood, with a long history of use. It is also not appropriate for complex, local changes, such as at the grounding line; it Betty boop xrated emotioicons membrane stresses cross the grounding line 4.

The Shallow-Shelf Approximation SSA was developed to model ice shelves, where basal shear stress is zero and where longitudinal stresses dominate.

The SSA is a vertically integrated 2D model, with a depth-averaged ice velocity. It is therefore difficult to implement in regions where vertical variations in speed are important, such as across grounding lines or complex ice flow near the ice divide The SSA is also a zero-order model. After Kirchner et al. Sliding and deformation in HySSA models. However, the physical assumptions do still break down near the grounding line in these kinds of models. This kind of model has been successfully used to model the Antarctic Ice Sheet 20,21 and New Zealand 15 ice sheet over several timescales.

There are two main kinds; Blatter-Pattyn type models and Second-Order models. Full Stokes models are the gold standard of numerical glacier and ice-sheet models; they account for all nine stress tensors. They are particularly useful over grounding lines, but may not be needed for the interior of the ice sheet, where improvements in modelling of ice flow is minimal but computational cost is far higher. They are challenging to use at continental scale with a fine grid size resolution.

The largest differences between Full Stokes and approximate models are therefore typically found near the coast These hybrid models have been shown to compare well with Full Stokes simulations. Ideally, the grid size would be approximately one ice-thickness, so around m around the margins of the Greenland ice sheet and around 3 km in the interior For example, a recent model of the Antarctic Ice Sheet evolution through the last glacial cycle had a grid size of 15 km 8.

Modellers are also limited by a lack of suitable ice-thickness data at that resolution; for example, BEDMAP2 has 5 km resolution A number of experiments have demonstrated that grid size is an important control on the accuracy of the model 22, This is especially important when modelling the grounding line. Grounding lines require fine-scale modelling 25but this is very computationally expensive and would result in very long model runs.

In our ice flow model, we represent the ice sheet as “blocks” which flow and stretch and melt as they flow. In reality, an ice sheet is a single entity, rather than a set of blocks. We have to consider the ice as blocks in order to solve the equations for ice flow over space. The ice is . Jul 12, · Based on model calculations of ice flow, they estimate that the rest of the aircraft will resurface on the glacier between and —not where Author: FeLix WuerSten. Modelling the ice flow. Ice is a quasi-viscous material, and it deforms under applied stress. In other words, if stress is applied to ice over long time periods, it behaves like a very tough fluid - .

### Ice flow model. Ice Core Drilling Projects

A glacier or ice-sheet model is a building block, used for experiments to make quantitative predictions about the future of glaciers and ice sheets. What links here. The next major distinction in numerical models is whether they are spatially distributed also known as plan view or flowline models 9. This is especially important when modelling the grounding line. Instead, modellers use numerical methods, which solve equations in a series of steps. Special pages. Diagnostic models focus on a specific process. This means that ice-sheet models prior to could not replicate some of the complex, non-linear changes in ice-sheet flow that might affect rates and magnitudes of sea level rise, such as ice shelf collapse or marine ice sheet instability. Quaternary Science Reviews 22 , , Perhaps, if the model physics are a suitable approximation of the real system, and the appropriate values for the input variables have been used. This means that the model parameters are systematically varied until the model outputs ice geometry, velocity, length, volume and so on match observations. Help Desk. Standard Names. Ice Core Drilling Projects.

### A special modelling effort is done for the areas where ice cores have been drilled.

A special modelling effort is done for the areas where ice cores have been drilled. For these areas we have detailed knowledge about the snow accumulation rate, the bedrock and surface topography, and the horizontal surface velocity from measurements performed on the ice sheet and on the ice core. This makes it possible to use simple, but specialized, models specifically tuned to these conditions. These models are often one- or two-dimensional simplifications of the three-dimensional flow models. The main goal of model studies at the ice core drill sites is often to establish a timescale for the ice core, i.

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